Pennzoil Place,  Houston, Texas

This headquarters built for Pennzoil and the Zapata Oil Company exhibits a striking design that marked a turning point in the evolution of the office tower as a building type. In lieu of the predictable glass box, two towers in the shape of trapezoids mirror each other and sit next to one another by a mere 10 feet.. The tops of the buildings are not cut off in the usual fashion, flat against the sky, but rather silhouette a strong diagonal massing. Clad in a curtain wall of bronze colored glass and anodized bronze aluminum, Pennzoil Place is a striking contrast to Houston’s skyline.

The two identical towers that make up Pennzoil Place rise 495 feet and have 34 levels each. Pennzoil Place contains a total gross area of 1.7 million square feet, of which 1.2 million square feet is rentable office space and commercial space. Each typical floor contains 20,500 square feet.

The street level area between the two towers is enclosed within a sloping glass roof creating a space that rises approximately 117 feet or eight stories to its apex. Principal entrances into the complex are through these glass courtyards. There are approximately 50,000 square feet of retail space in this project. At the Mall level, a shopping area provides a variety of shops and services. Space is also allocated for a restaurant to serve the occupants of Pennzoil Place during the day and theater-goers at nearby theaters during the evening.

Pennzoil Place was an early project done for Hines. It was the beginning of a very long professional relationship that produced more than a dozen signature projects for this Houston-based developer.

Client: Gerald D. Hines Interests
Completion Date: 1976
Area: 1,500,000 square feet


Post Oak Central I, II, III, Houston, Texas

On the exterior, these svelte towers are ringed in charcoal and silver, arranged in an intricately interlocking pattern of ribbons, dressed with the metallic sea green reflections of the Texas sky. Surrounding the base ois a single thickness of textured gray slate as plinth. Grey slate also paves the approaches, and the sumptuous materials and restrained palette continue on the inside. The lobby is floored in slate, lined in light gray marble, and the ceiling is finished in tiny gray tiles.

Altogether there are three towers, a retail building and a garage on a 17 acre site near major highways. The arrangement of the complex is geared to automobile-dominated Houston.

ernst & young (07)

Ernst & Young, Rotterdam, Holland

This office tower occupies a narrow site between the Rhine and one of Rotterdam’s many canals. While the building takes its design cues from local buildings and conditions, the principle gesture is the rotation of the body of the tower to allow optimum river views and sunlight in the office spaces. The rotation also serves to give prominence the historic landmark building adjacent to the new tower, and also provides views and a visual connection to the city center. The building is fully occupied by the financial company Ernst & Young and is their Holland headquarters.



101 California Street


IBM Atlantic Tower


Chicago Post Office Development (in progress), Chicago, Illinois

The Chicago Post Office Development is the renovation of Chicago’s old main post office building. The 3.5 million square foot existing building is located at the southern edge of “the loop” one block south of Union Station. On the ground floor, the site is divided in half by the Congress Parkway which brings thousands of commuters into the loop each day. The client owns two adjacent properties between the existing Post Office building and the Chicago River. Once the site has been fully developed, there will be three towers on the adjacent sites. The largest of these towers is slated to be a 120+ story office tower. Also the high speed rail line from St. Louis will terminate on this site making it a new transportation hub for the entire city of Chicago.


Newark Market Street Tower, Newark, New Jersey

The Newark Market Street Tower is positioned to take advantage of the urban revitalization of Newark, New Jersey. With the completion of the Newark / New Jersey Devil’s Arena, Newark hopes to spark a widespread overhaul of its public image. The city planners hope to bring new life and activity along Newark’s main streets of Market and Broad. The site is located directly adjacent to the arena along Market Street. The building is in close proximity to New Jersey mass transit as well as New Jersey bus services. The main portion of the 42 story tower is moderate to high end residential. The proposal also includes sports based commercial on the lower levels to extend the event experience beyond the new arena. There is a large secured parking component that will function as event parking as well as parking for the residents. The design intent is to give Newark a new sleek glass tower in its skyline. The lower portion of the tower steps up in a spiral shape giving balconies to the lowest units. Special attention was given to the base of the tower that houses the parking. In order to maintain the feel of Newark’s downtown, a false façade replicating a series of infill buildings will screen the parking levels from the street level. These facades will have depth and varying architectural elements to soften the impact of the new construction along the prominent thoroughfare of Market Street.



Puerta de Europa, Madrid, Spain

These two office towers flank the Paseo de la Castellana, Madrid’s most important boulevard. The location of a subway interchange made the placement of the two towers near the street impossible. Their bold design is in part a response to the need for the footprints of the towers to be set back from the interchange while at the same time bringing the towers together as a single compositional whole. The towers lean towards each other and over the plazas, ensuring their visibility from up and down the Paseo and creating a portal which, being at the Northern end of the business district of Madrid, has been called a metaphorical gateway to Europe.

The facades of each tower is a composition of a major grid clad in stainless steel conforming to their structure, a minor grid of red mullions, and a third grid comprising the light grey mullions of the curtain wall.

 Completion Date: 1995


Bank of America Center Houston, Texas

The, 1.5 million square foot, building that headquarters Bank One Texas, and several major law firms, occupies a full, city block in downtown Dallas, a block from Thanksgiving Square. The project combines a low banking hall with a tall office tower, by way of a distinct roof shape – here, an immense inset barrel vault – to give the small building importance and an identity at the street level. At the same time, a connection is forged between the barrel vault and the tower hundreds of feet above.

Both high and low sections are sited as long rectangles parallel to each other but interwoven visually through intersecting axes and cross axes at three levels. The barrel vault of the banking hall is placed across its width, perpendicular to the tower, and repeated in its elevation. The sections are further connected through their materials. Pink granite sheaths the banking hall and corners of the tower, while the sheer glass of the bank’s skylight covered vault is carried up the center of each tower elevation and across the half-vaults at the setbacks. The cross-vault roof of the tower is covered in copper.

The low bank building is approached from its raised and landscaped front lawn and entered through a 63-foot-high granite arch, scaled as an entry for the 800-foot-high tower. The door leads to a marble-paved, 70-foot, walkway that bridges through the, six-level, skylit atrium of the bank to the tower lobby, looking down onto the trading floor below. A monumental building for downtown Dallas, the building is clearly in the style of the firm’s signature tall buildings designed in the 1980s.

Completion Date: 1987
Area: 1,500,000 square feet
Associate Architect: Harwood K. Smith Partners


ADIA Headquarters, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

The design was drawn from the history of the region, as seen in examples of Islamic architecture. The building is deliberately set on the extreme Western boundary of the site, filling the corner to the North and giving a dominant presence to the Corniche. The windows are large and deeply recessed into the facades, allowing light to penetrate into the core, yet shading the interior from direct sunlight.



Momentum Place – Comerica Bank Tower, Dallas, Texas

Filling an entire block of downtown Dallas, this headquarters for Bank One Texas and several major law firms is comprised of a low banking hall and office tower. The immense barrel vault of the banking haul is expressed thematically in the tower, creating unity and giving the building a distinct profile on the Dallas skyline.

Both high and low volumes of the building mass are sited as long rectangles parallel to each other but interwoven through intersecting axes at three levels. The banking hall and corners of the tower are clad in granite, while the sheer glass of the bank’s skylight-enclosed vault is carried up the center of each tower elevation and across the half-vaults at the setbacks. The cross-vault roof of the tower is clad in copper.

The low banking hall is approached from a raised and landscaped front lawn and entered through a 63-foot-high granite arch. The arched entrance leads to a marble-paved 70 foot walkway that bridges through a six storey sky-lit atrium to the tower lobby.

Completion Date: 1987
Area: 1,500,000 square feet
Associate Architect: Harwood K. Smith Partners


South LaSalle Street Chicago, Illinois

This 40-story office tower in the heart of the financial district in Chicago is set diagonally across from Burnham and Root’s Rookery. Much of its imagery is derived from the Chicago School skyscrapers of the late nineteenth century. The gables pay homage to Burnham and Root’s Masonic Temple, Chicago’s first 20 story building. The entire building base is sheathed in rusticated flame-finished imperial red granite, with polished red granite around the immense arched entryways and flanking windows. The 55 foot height of the base corresponds to the cornices and coursing lines of nearby buildings. The roof is dominated by six copper-clad gables with cast aluminum cresting. A law library and reading room are housed inside the gables.

Client: The John Buck Company
Area: 800,000 square feet


Lipstick Building –  53rd at Third Avenue, New York, New York

When Hines began work on 53rd at Third, the red and pink granite office tower with an elliptical plan, they knew they needed something to make the project stand out. Third Avenue was not then known for premier architecture and high-end office towers. Hines and the firm determined that above all an unusual shape, particularly one where all the exterior offices became “corner” ones, would be a great way to start. The final product is one of the most unusual buildings on the New York skyline, which also happens to command very high rents.

Johnson, who can rarely help but think about history, has remarked that the oval shape and surrounding colonnade is reminiscent of Italian baroque architecture. One of the best qualities of the building is its public presence. As an oval placed in a rectangular lot, plenty of public walks space was created. The high glassed in lobby is both a spectacle to be watched from the exterior, as well as a place from which the bustling sidewalk activity in New York can be observed.

Client: Gerald D. Hines Interests
Completion date: 1986


Williams Tower AKA Transco Tower – Houston, Texas

Philip Johnson and developer extraordinaire, Gerald D. Hines, have worked on many projects since their first collaboration in the late 1960s. One of the best examples of this partnership is the former Transco Tower — named for the energy firm that originally occupied much the building. The building’s site is simply incredible. The developer set aside several acres of what is now prime Houston Galleria district to be used as a park (open to the public), which is a spectacular backdrop for the 51-story tower that rises as a monument that can be seen from great distances.

Here, the firm produced a design quite different from an earlier Johnson landmark built for Hines in downtown Houston, Pennzoil Place. Instead of adapting the modern glass box, the architects began by rethinking the traditional 1920s American skyscraper. For Transco, completed the 1980s, the architects mixed stone and glass, which brought together the traditional effect of a ceremonial stone arch, done here in pink granite, with the modern possibilities of a reflective glass curtain wall. To complete the composition of tower and park, the architects created a sculptural fountain, the Water Wall. This horseshoe of rushing water that sits behind a proscenium arch is a welcome cool spot in often steamy Houston. Transco Tower and Park is proof that private development can produce excellent architecture and terrific public amenities.

Client: Gerald D. Hines Interests
Completion Date: 1985
Area: 1,600,000 sq. ft.
Associate Architect: Morris Aubry Architects


PPG Coporate Headquarters – One PPG Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

This complex is the headquarters of PPG Corporation. Formerly, the company’s offices had been scattered throughout various buildings in downtown Pittsburgh. When the company decided to relocate to an urban renewal district, and therefore required a complex with a strong corporate identity that could also create an urban center, they came to Philip Johnson.

The aim of creating a neighborhood led the architects to plan two public squares on the five-block site. These public spaces were designed to complement the existing public spaces nearby. An enclosed winter garden brings adjacent park land inside. In the center of the complex are six office buildings-one of forty stories, one of thirteen, and five of five. They surround a plaza paved in granite. This pedestrian space adapts easily to a variety of performance uses. It complements, but does not repeat, the design of the nearby Market Square, a traditional town green.

The design of the facades was inspired by an insight into the nature of reflective glass, one of the corporation’s core products. Highly reflective glass, an opaque material, is perhaps more similar to stone than to traditional glass. The building’s many articulations, bays and buttresses create interest similar to the shadows and highlights of a stone building.

Client: PPG Industries
Completion Date: 1985
Area: 2,000,000 square feet


Sony Building AKA  AT&T Corporate Headquarters, New York, New York

When American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) decided to construct a New York headquarters corporate towers were exclusively built on the model of the sleek glass and steel boxes of modernism. But the company wanted a strong visual identity – a monument and they chose the right architects to do that. The AT&T Building was a breakthrough design — a large-scale office project that relied on the historic precedent of great 1920s skyscrapers and ancient architecture and was built in granite -in a word it was “post modern”-and as a result the building has become a landmark recognized worldwide. It possesses a highly identifiable top, a broken pediment that Philip Johnson states comes from his appreciation of ancient architecture, not from Chippendale furniture.

The tower makes a substantial contribution to the civic floor space of the city. There is a 20,000 square feet covered plaza that is open to the public at grade, which has retail stores, kiosks, and a cafe-terrace. The tower, 90′ x 200′ in plan, rises 648 feet flush to the street to maintain Madison Avenue’s street line.

The reception “skylobby”, in effect the corporate entrance, is linked by four elevator shuttles seventy-seven feet above the ground. This ingenious system of double entry splits security and reception, from the “representational” aspect of the building: its notable façade and monumental street level lobby with its cross-vaulted and gilded ceiling and monumental statute representing the Spirit of Electricity.

Client: AT&T Corporation
Completion Date: 1984
Area: 850,000 square feet
Associate Architects: Simmons Architects


Riverside South Residential Complex, New York, New York

Comprising in 1.52 million square feet of residential space, the four buildings at Riverside South are the most significant urban planning and residential development for New York City in recent years. The site for the design of the project was formerly an abandoned railway yard on the Hudson River which adjoins with the West Side Highway. Governed by a distinct set of guidelines, these controls are required for the zoning of the site and its relative concerns to size, massing, height, setbacks, and materials. The Riverside South Planning Board administers the guidelines and governs the more detailed issues such as detailing, window openings, specific materials, and entrances.

The first commissioned building, featured in the image to the left, consists of 486,000 gross square feet including rental units from studios to luxury three bedrooms. In addition, twenty percent of these 515 apartments will provide subsidized housing for tenants qualifying for such assistance. All four buildings have a three-story limestone base which contains retail footage on the ground floor. Masonry towers rise above the bases in varying heights, from eighteen to forty stories. Each of the buildings will have different architectural features, especially the tops and bases, while maintaining a consistent use of materials. The intent is to create a tower grouping with scale and mass similar to the residential towers of Central Park West. Together these buildings will provide an important urban grouping and a waterfront park for all city residents.


Habitable Sculpture, New York, New York

Philip Johnson originally referred to this design for a residential building as, “the triumph of the double hung”, a reference to the liberal use of traditional double hung windows throughout the building. In fact, the early impetus for the concept was a catalog of sculpture by John Chamberlain, which suggested an interesting collision of vertical forms. From that initial idea Philip Johnson Alan Ritchie Architects then examined the local structures at this western gateway to New York’s SoHo, a mix of 19th-century buildings and selected certain elements, such as brick and vernacular windows to use in the firm’s design. What resulted was a 21st century response to the problem of how to work new architecture into an older context. The design begins simply at its base and builds its Cubist appearance by the slight tilting of the vertical sections of the building. Herbert Muschamp, architecture critic of The New York Times has described the proposed building as a, “gem”.

Client: Place Vendome Realty Inc.
Associate Architect: H. Thomas H. O’Hara Architects


The Metropolitan Tower – 181 East 90th Street, New York, New York

PJAR’s goal was to create a beacon of quality, dignity and refinement in an area of the city that was ready to become one of Manhattan’s most desirable neighborhoods. The tower cantilevers over two adjoining properties at the building’s base by 19′-6″ to the west and 16′-6″ to the north, overhanging older low-rise structures, giving it a wing-like quality. This was the most technically challenging aspect of the project. A floor’s worth of structure was required to sustain the weight of the cantilever. One of the lead engineers described the building as “an architectural angel of brick, glass and steel rising above the Upper East Side. The design is a modernist 32 story luxury condominiums with horizontal banding of the long, warm, sand-colored Norman brick, white metal slab covers and bronzed glass, enhanced by the curved corners that add a touch of voluptuousness to the building form, and recall Wright’s Johnson & Johnson Wax tower. The curved-corner motif is expressed throughout the building, in the entrance canopy, lobby window wall and door frames, the elevator cabs, mechanical louvers, and even the custom-designed kitchen cabinets.

The entrance lobby is finished with mosaic tile on the ceiling, green marble on the floor, and silk panels on the walls. The custom-designed elevators and elevator lobbies and the mail room are finished with walnut. Tremendous attention was devoted to detailing the lobby and the highest quality of materials were used throughout. A custom carpet was designed by PJAR for the common areas in the apartment-level floors.


Private Residence, New York, New York

Two penthouse apartments were combined into one duplex apartment with sweeping 360 degree views of New York City. Scope of the project included extensive general construction, interior design and landscaping work.

Project done in collaboration with Ritchie-Hurtado Design Inc.



Morningside House Nursing Home – 5th Floor Renovation, Bronx, New York

In 2010, Aging in America commissioned Philip Johnson / Alan Ritchie Architects to renovate the top floor of their nursing home in the Bronx, New York. Morningside House Nursing Home consists of a pair of symmetrical five story buildings that were designed by Philip Johnson in the early 1970s. The fifth floor was previously used as the dementia floor and was converted to the homeward-bound rehabilitation floor. This floor serves as a last step in preparing patients before they are released to their own homes.

Several patient rooms in the central area were removed to allow daylight to penetrate into the main corridor through the rehabilitation suite. The nurse’s station and the medical services areas were also repositioned to give the space an open feel. All 23 of the remaining resident rooms were completely renovated with new flooring, window treatments, cabinetry, lighting, beds, furniture and technological updates. The dining room was also completely renovated with the ceiling being raised near the outer perimeter windows to give the room a more spacious feel.

Buck Ski House (unbuilt), Telluride, Colorado

This house designed for the hills of Colorado is comprised of three main components: The lap-pool house, the main house, and the fully-serviced master suite which can serve as a guest house, and which is reached by crossing a footbridge over the creek that divides the site. The main house is composed of a series of cylinders of varying sizes, the largest of which contains an internal stair. The other cylinders serve as chimneys and storage closets. The cylinders are tied together by the straight exterior walls, which abut the cylinders at different angles. The windows at the upper level of the main house are round and irregular, expressing the plan of the cylindrical walls.

The living areas of the main house face views to the south, as do the Jacuzzi and barbecue pit which are carved out of the hill. Bedrooms face the creek.

Area: 6,500 sq. ft.

Oasis House (unbuilt), Israel

Growing out of the design for Johnson’s own visitor pavilion (Da Monsta), the firm has done several projects that employ the unusual geometry seen in this project. The fascination for warping, sculpting and twisting has been taken to a new level here. Multiple pavilions of varying sizes create an overall ensemble. Johnson has described this as a “village” in the desert. This is most apt since the site is a desert landscape in Israel.

This approach to creating a substantial home — breaking down rooms into individual pavilions — is consistent with Johnson’s own approach at the Glass House. The architects want to create not only architecture, but a form of urbanism or landscape. The relationship among the constituent parts is as much of interest as are the individual structures.

The pavilions will be directed toward a central reflecting pool, which will enhance the feeling of an oasis. In addition to bedrooms, living space and other gathering areas, a separate synagogue will be included as well as tennis courts and a pool.

Trump International Hotel and tower New York, New York

The prominence of this building at the corner of Central Park and adjacent to Columbus Circle called for an elegant and distinctive design. The exterior of the building is clad in bronzed glass trimmed with stainless steel accents to emphasize the building’s verticality and sharpen the numerous corners of the new façade.

Formerly an office tower for Gulf and Western, the building’s structure required considerable upgrading to reduce sway during periods of high winds, both because residential tolerance for building movement is much less than for offices, and because construction of new towers nearby had created more adverse wind loading conditions.

The building incorporates a 166 room hotel, an equal number of luxury condominium units and a four star restaurant adjacent to Central Park.

Client: GE Investment Management, The Galbreath Company, The Trump Organization
Completion Date: 1996
Area: 672,000 sq. ft.
Associate Architect: CK Architects

The Lotus Club at Daytona Beach, South Daytona, Florida

The Lotus Club is a 372 unit, one million square foot development located in Daytona, Florida. The Lotus Club was strategically sited with easy access to the beach and the airport as well as the Daytona International Speedway. The complex will also provide a marina with boat slips for residents as well as the local public. The modern design is based on a simple yet very unique super-grid. The 3 building phases create an embracing gesture around a 61,000 square foot landscaped plaza. A curving bench with planters and foliage wraps around the perimeter of the plaza. The focal point of the outdoor space is a 30 foot tall waterfall along the Halifax River. Through careful planning, all of the 372 units are able to have a view of the water. There are also a large number of duplexes in the unit mix, which will be a unique draw in the Florida condominium market. Working with the Orlando Architecture firm of GLE Associates, the design process is currently heading into the Construction Document Phase.


The Stevens Hotel, Washington, D.C.

The Stevens Hotel project in Washington, D.C. is a sensitive historic renovation of an existing school building integrated with the construction of a contemporary 15 story hotel tower. The vision for this project is to create an elegant boutique hotel with the Morgan Hotel Group that will showcase the seamless integration of a revitalized Stevens Elementary School in the Foggy Bottom District. Hotel amenities will include a richly-decorated, upscale restaurant with lounge bar, a world-class spa / fitness center and banquet / meeting facilities. The Stevens School will be reactivated by adding dining options on the ground level and newly designed green space to add to the pedestrian activity along the street.



Number 5, New York, New York

Number 5 is a mixed-use residential and commercial tower located in midtown Manhattan. The site is only twenty-seven feet wide, but by breaking the building’s width into 3′-0″ bays, all interior walls and exterior detailing is designed to respect this simple module. The 6 story base has retail on the lower two floors and four levels of one bedroom units. Above the base, an additional fourteen more residential floors were added, giving the final building a height of more than 236 feet at its tallest point.

There are a total of 20 apartments: 3 studios, 3 one-bedroom, 13 full floor two-bedroom apartments and one two-story penthouse with internal staircase. Numerous apartments on the front of the building have private terraces / balconies. The state of the art kitchens by Bulthaup, and the bathrooms in the apartments were developed by Ritchie Hurtado Design and follow the modern concept and aesthetics of the building itself.

Project done in collaboration with Ritchie-Hurtado Design Inc.


Urban Glass House, New York, New York

The early impetus for the concept was a catalog of sculpture by John Chamberlain, which suggested an interesting collision of vertical forms. From that initial idea Philip Johnson Alan Ritchie Architects then examined the local structures at this western gateway to New York’s SoHo, a mix of 19th-century buildings and selected certain elements, such as brick and vernacular windows to use in the firm’s design. What resulted was a 21st century response to the problem of how to work new architecture into an older context.

After several stages of transition, what was to be Philip Johnson’s last residential commission developed into a 12-story glass condominium building whose glass walls encased 40 luxury apartments. Johnson, along with partner Alan Ritchie, allowed the name Urban Glass House to be used, implying a commitment to the same standards of excellence and rigorous attention to detail as Johnson’s world-famous New Canaan masterpiece.


22 Renwick Street, New York, New York

No.22 Renwick is a 12-story new construction condominium offering a boutique selection of two-bedroom residences and full-floor penthouses. The apartments feature warm, delicate, and modern interiors, with custom kitchen and bath was designed in association with Modern Arc that contrasts beautifully with the tiled terra cotta facade. Floor-to-ceiling windows allow for plenty of light to shine through over 4-inch wide plank walnut floors. A windowed kitchen features Bamboo and glass cabinetry with stone countertops and top-of-the-line appliances. An en-suite master bath showcases mosaic glass accent tile on bath and shower walls and linen patterned porcelain tile walls and floor. Renwick Street, just one block long, offers both discretion and privacy within the exciting residential enclave often lauded as the frontier destination of the downtown avant-garde. The building also has a resident shared roof deck and a small entry lobby with Japanese influenced accents.

Project done in collaboration with Ritchie-Hurtado Design Inc.

Mixed Use


Dalian Commodity Exchange Plaza, Dalian, China

Dalian is the main commercial port of Northeast China, situated on the Laiodong Peninsula along the Korean Bay. The Dalian Financial Center master plan serves as link between the major seaport to the North and the rapidly expanding residential and recreational areas to the South and West. The Central Business District is composed of ascending office towers that line the western edge of the site, surrounding a pedestrian only commercial area. The Financial District is crowned by the two dynamic towers of the Dalian Commodities Exchange Plaza located at the southern edge of the site. These towers spiral up in a gesture of economic growth and prowess. The towers also overlook the turtle-shaped Xing Hai Square, which is the largest ocean front plaza in the world, and offers spectacular views of the mountainous regions to the east and west of the district.



China Central Television, Beijing, China

PJAR was one of five international architectural firms selected to participate in a design competition for China Central Television. The complex was designed to be Beijing’s focal point, and has been set on a site of man-made hills and lakes. This artificial landscape appears as a “Living Garden” in the heart of Beijing. From several islands within the lake rise six distinctive structures: “The Island of Thinking,” a spiraling administrative office tower of metal and glass; “The Island of Feeling” a smoothed, curvaceous shaped hotel; “The Island of Seeing” is the News and Broadcasting studio consisting of two angular shapes braced against one another; “The Island of Listening,” a conical shape resembling a television, theatre and concert hall. Crossing the garden is the Central Services Building, which connects all buildings and is the trunk of movement, centralizing all the roots of the garden.



New Carrollton Park, New Carrollton, Maryland

New Carrollton is slated to become the first large-scale transit-oriented development in Prince George’s County, Maryland. The project consists of 5.5 million square feet of new development on 39 acres centered adjacent to the New Carrollton Metrorail, Amtrak and MARC stations. Teaming up with nationally renowned real estate company, The Peebles Corporation, PJAR Architects put together a course of action and design for the transit-oriented development as a framework for the State of Maryland. The conceptual vision for the project at New Carrollton Metro Station entails redevelopment of parcels owned by WMATA and the State of Maryland to create a high-density, mixed-use project that will make New Carrollton appealing to commuters as a destination for living and retail rather than just a transportation hub. New Carrollton Park would serve as a regional model for creative redevelopment to reposition under-utilized public land into sustainable, mixed-use projects contributing to employment, quality of life and economic development.



Octyabrskiy Buisness Park, Kiev, Ukraine

The Octyabrskiy Business Park is a master plan development consisting of six towers with an interconnected podium in Kiev. The scheme is primarily an office park with a small eight story hotel as support. The irregular shaped site is currently occupied by an unused brewery and is located along the main loop roughly five kilometers from the city center. With a fifteen meter change in elevation from one end of the site to the other, the business park is split into two separate plazas. The lower plaza is public and anchored by a 30 story tower nearest to the main intersection of two major highways. The upper plaza is more private and has direct access to the hotel spaces. There are five levels of parking below grade with nearly 100,000 cars.


Yeni Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey

New Istanbul is part of an ongoing renewal and land rehabilitation act enacted by the Turkish government. Located 25 kilometers from the city of Istanbul, New Istanbul promises new hope for up to 200,000 residents and workers, offering a healthy and safe living condition for all ages, cultural and social groups. Conceptually, the ability to master plan an entirely new city affords the opportunity to bring long-range planning to its highest level – allowing for infrastructure and neighborhoods to be retrofitted and upgraded in a systematic fashion with a maintenance oriented approach. The “Silk Hills” concept was incorporated into the design process by thematically linking various business districts to historic cities on the great Silk Road. Like the ancient Silk Road, this collection of districts provides commerce, culture, art, and leisure to the people of New Istanbul.


Rompetrol Headquarters & Park, Bucharest,  Romania

Erste Group Immorent (real estate and development specialists) solicited Costas Kondylis and Partners and PJAR Architects to develop schematic plans for a new “Smart City” and Corporate Headquarters for Rompetrol in Bucharest, Romania. The smart city development will be used as an anchor for future urban expansion and growth of an area in Bucharest which has a prime location to both the downtown and the new Northern Business District. The focal point on the main public square is the triangular shaped 27 story Rompetrol Headquarters building that has a smooth glass double façade that warps and bows as it rises above the plaza. The tower is surrounded by 8 to 12 story office buildings and 4 to 6 story residential buildings that are treated as curved articulated volumes that interlock to form visual corridors.


Shanghai Auto Park, Shanghai, China

The master plan is based on linking Shanghai Auto City to the whole of the Jia Ding – Ah Ting area by several modes of public transportation, which will be the initial means of transport to this area. The public transportation system will connect the future Formula One Race Track, major railroad line, and the city of Shanghai. This design, as an eco-friendly recreational environment, will feature the promotion of education, innovation and exhibition focusing on the automobile industry. The design modifies the existing 78 hectare flat farm land by creating a multi-faceted ground plane, which would be visible from the surrounding landscape. The hills and slopes will create opportunities for showcasing the various auto showrooms and test track in addition to surrounding and cradling the internal lake. The hills also enclose several recreational features and provide a dynamic natural backdrop to the high-tech Auto Museum and the Convention Exhibition Center.



McKinley Center Master Plan, Manila, Philippines

Covering some 64 hectares, the program lays out what is in effect a small city. This master plan is to be built in the New Fort Bonifacio District of Manila in one if several defined development zones.

Close to Ninoy Aquino International Airport and 2 kilometers from Makati, this development will be reached by road and light rail and include residential towers, offices, hotels, a theme park, country club, retail mall and chapel. Arnold Palmer will be involved in the design of the18-hole golf course.



Port America, Washington, D.C.

The great public squares of Europe and the waterfronts of the Mediterranean inspired the design of Port America’s riverfront esplanade. The stretch of the riverfront, looking southeast at the inner harbor of the Potomac, is to be an active social center.

Stores and restaurants will be housed within the first two floors of the five-storey masonry-clad buildings. Activity from these establishments will overflow from within the continuous single-height arcades on to the 45 foot wide granite-paved pedestrian walkway along the river’s edge. The upper three stories of the buildings will contain residences.

At the center of the development, located along a 90 degree bend in the river, is a grand crescent-shaped courtyard, with a café constructed on a deck at the shoreline.

Client: James T. Lewis Enterprises



Chong Min Island Master Plan, Chong Min Island, China

The four main themes of this master plan are: bio-technology, bio-leisure, bio-agriculture and bio-eco-housing.

The importance of the Yangtze River and existing water uses in the peninsula are reflected in the central canal corridor, which uses the flowing pattern of water and surrounding land forms to structure the master plan.

As the canal flows east, slowly changing from formal to natural, the nature of the built and developed changes with it. Formal structures and spaces give way to informal spaces. Canals flow south from the corridor and the meet the Yangtze River, terminating in marinas, a ferry terminal, a conserved and enhanced fishing village, and new village settlements. These canals are structured to form key visual corridors extending from the central urban areas.

Water will be naturally purified through reed beds. Locks and wind generators will facilitate control of eastward saline water flow into the canal system, and the control of water levels.

Client: Shanghai Modern Agriculture Development Co. Ltd.
Area: 8,470 hectares
Associate Architect: Studio BAAD



Sufism Reoriented (in progress), Walnut Creek, California

Sufism Reoriented, a religious organization based on the core values of love and unity, has engaged Philip Johnson / Alan Ritchie Architects to design a new Sanctuary and Headquarters in California. Each design element of the new Sanctuary has spiritual significance for the client and reinforces their underlying faith. The Church’s key beliefs in unity and the Universal Love at the heart of all life have led the design team to organize the Sanctuary space as a central dome that is surrounded by a series of interlocking domes. The space is open with pure white surfaces that allow for free movement and focused reflection during each service. In order to respect all aspects of worship, only the necessary functions are located above ground. All support spaces and additional function space is located on a concourse level below grade, which is more than twice the area of the structure visible above ground.



Cathedral of Hope-  Interfaith Peace Chapel, Dallas, Texas

The Interfaith Peace Chapel is a modern worship space designed by Philip Johnson / Alan Ritchie Architects. It is an inspirational design of “sculpture as architecture”. Seating up to 175 people, the chapel provides ideal space for intimate worship services, commitment ceremonies and memorial services. Not tied to any one denomination, this Interfaith Peace Chapel is meant to serve all religions. Though the unique form is not tied to any particular religious architectural style, the intention is for the structure to be a blank canvas that will be inviting and comfortable for all religious groups.

The chapel will be a place where people of all faiths, or no faith, can participate in dialogue, meditation and prayer. The environment and surroundings will inspire people to join together in order to build understanding of similarities and differences. The Peace Chapel is the integral first phase of the Cathedral of Hope Master plan which includes a 40,000 square foot Cathedral designed by PJAR.


The Chapel at Thanksgiving Square, Dallas, Texas

Thanksgiving Square is a peaceful landscape offering a calm place to rest in downtown Dallas. It is graced with sloping greenery, pools of water, and a cascading fountain set in a three-acre triangular site. At its heart is a chapel in the form of a spiral–a place for meditation and prayer. Within the spiral is a custom stained glass skylight that provides a soft, multi-colored light.

In 1992, the firm was asked to coordinate improvements for the Thanksgiving Square area as part of a planned new light rail, transit way system. The ensuing reconfiguration of the street allowed for the placement of train tracks. This also provided an opportunity to develop the Western point of the site. The firm also worked on street improvements, including trees, street and sidewalk paving, lighting and overall signage.

Client: Thanksgiving Square
Completion Date: 1977 and 1996
Area: 5,800 square feet (chapel)



St. Basils Chapel, University of St. Thomas, Houston, Texas

When Philip Johnson worked on the original master plan in Miesian style for the University St. Thomas in Houston in 1957, he had every intention that he would complete the campus with a chapel. Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects finally had the opportunity to make this happen in 1996. The result is a clever geometric composition that complements, although in an entirely different style, the original modern campus.

From the exterior, one sees a gold dome on top of a manipulated white stucco cube whose entrance is a giant “tent flap”. The cube rises 60 feet and seats 260. The Chapel is a cube sliced at an oblique angle by a black granite wall. The wall crashes through the galleries at both sides and is perforated by doorways, windows and an opening that holds church bells.

With a modest interior, the main effect is the play of daylight from several hidden sources: the slot through the dome above; an angled skylight over the altar; the chimney-like light over the statue of the Virgin Mary; and the slot behind the organ. The most important feature is the great cross on the west wall, which is made of clear glass and creates a startling brightness in the comparatively shadowed interior.

Client: University of St. Thomas
Completion Date: 1996
Area: 6,800 square feet
Associate Architect: Merriman Holt Architects


Cathedral of Hope (unbuilt), Dallas, Texas

The Dallas branch of the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches, the nation’s largest gay and lesbian religious denomination, commissioned the design for the cathedral in 1995 and are in the process of raising the funds now needed to build it.

In its rough model form, the Cathedral of Hope rises, like an iceberg emerging from the sea, and soars to a crowning peak over the altar. The finished version of the cathedral will be approximately 282 feet in length with 159 feet of an adjacent arcade area — taller than Notre Dame in Paris. The 27 year-old congregation, has already outgrown its present 900-seat building which it moved into in 1993. The new cathedral will seat 2,200 and aspires to the feeling of the great Gothic cathedrals.

The design stems from the firm’s exploration of a new architectural direction, one where conventional geometry is rejected in favor of a more expressive and free form.

area: 40,000 ft.
Client: The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches


PC 2

Philadelphia Cathedral

The office was invited to develop a concept for the design of the Church’s anticipated new Cathedral to house a congregation of 3.000. the scheme consists of the main body of the Cathedral, a separate bell tower, and teaching and administrative facilities placed around a large cloister.



Crystal Cathedral, Garden Grove Community Church, Garden Grove, California

The Reverend Dr. Robert Schuller commissioned this church to help transmit his message through architecture. It was to inspire and bond the experience of religion with the experience of nature. Dr. Schuller said that he felt God should be enjoyed in the presence of the sky and the surrounding world, not in a forbidding stone environment. In response to this Johnson produced an extraordinary glass structure. From the outside, the huge church, sheathed entirely in glass, appears as a gigantic crystalline form along the freeway, earning it its popular name, the Crystal Cathedral. White-painted space trusses contrast with the glass on the interior, a muscular counterpoint to the sharp angles and fragility.

In order to focus the interior on the chancel, the typical Latin cross plan of Christian churches is adjusted to bring every seat as close to the stage as possible. The nave is shortened, the transept widened, and the plan transformed into a four-pointed star. The congregation enters from three points, under the balconies, into the immense space. The center aisle is lined with splashing fountains that die down just before the reverend is about to speak.

A pair of “Cape Kennedy doors”, a mere 90 feet high, sit on one side of the chancel and may be opened by hand-held remote control, allowing Schuller’s address to reach those worshippers in the parking lot listening to his message on car radios. The church is not air-conditioned but is shielded from sunlight by its reflective glass and ventilated through motorized windows. The design of these makes the windows indistinguishable from inoperable panes when closed, giving the “crystal” an uninterrupted surface.

In 1990 the Reverend Dr. Schuller commissioned Philip Johnson to design a new campanile, or bell tower. The 240 foot tall steel tower, clad in stainless steel prisms, has a marble chapel at the base.

Client: Garden Grove Community Church
Completion Date: 1980/1992
Area: 3,000 seats
Associate Architect: Albert C. Martin and Associates


Chavasse Park (Unbuilt), Liverpool, England

The idea of urban intervention has been a central part of several recent designs by Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects. In these they have explored how to place large-scale structures within existing urban fabric to create extraordinary architectural effects. Their design for Chavasse Park in Liverpool, England is a clear example of this urban intervention, which at once stands out as a civic monument, yet acts to unite various elements of the city to form a recognizable urban district. Its distinctly warped form is very much due to the firm’s collaboration with engineer, Cecil Balmond of Ove Arup Partners. When asked about the use of glass to enclose the two-story shopping mall, Johnson explains, “This is reminiscent of traditional shopping arcades such as London’s famous Burlington arcade and similar arcades found in France and Germany.”

Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects is concerned greatly with what will makes this project so special to the city of Liverpool. Johnson asserts, “It will offer retail and entertainment activities and all that, but more important it will provide pedestrian access to and from Liverpool’s Old dock, the city’s salient feature. The design emanates directly from the need to reintegrate the waterfront into the city.”


Lancy Office Center, Geneva, Switzerland

This office building in Geneva will house an international financial institution, providing high-end office interiors with a totally transparent building skin. The building consists of an eight story tower and a six story elongated block intercepted by an atrium that rises from 15 to 25 meters in height. There are two full-service lobbies, a paved plaza with outdoor seating areas, and a landscaped plaza surrounding the building.

Other amenities include two 200-seat auditoriums, a conference center, a fitness center, and three levels of underground parking. The glass curtain walls of the building provide an elegant drama to each of the facades via the use of an automated shading system. The shading devices are integrated into the glazing system, and when lowered will display an attractive palette of colors inside and out. This innovative curtain wall together with custom lighting features will set the building in motion and create a soothingly colorful play of light and shadow.


Chrysler Center Addition and Renovation, New York, New York

Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects have provided a three-part solution for Tishman Speyer Properties extraordinary development at one of New York’s best-known buildings — the Chrysler building. First, the firm designed new cladding for the former, “Kent Building”, now Chrysler East. Vertical “super mullions” encase prefabricated wall panels, which enforces the verticality of the new façade. An added bay to the West creates 130,000 sq. ft. of new space. The advantage here is the transformation of the formerly blank West façade into one with floor-to-ceiling glass windows that provide spectacular views of the Chrysler and Empire State Buildings beyond.

Second, Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects has remade Chrysler East’s lobby. Using four-foot diameter stainless steel-clad columns, and walls and flooring in a rich granite, the firm has produced a temple-like interior. This area extends into the corridor leading to a new space, the Link.

The firm’s third move at Chrysler Center is a remarkable piece of glass and steel sculpture at the Link, the Trylons at Chrysler Center. These pyramid-like forms collide in strange angles and produce a remarkable image on 42nd Street. Rising 60 to 70 feet in height, they enclose a very special space, which is expected to house a top-level restaurant.


First Union Plaza, Boca Raton, Florida

Located in the center of the Boca Raton business district, this 4.1 acre master plan for a mixed-use development uses materials and colors reminiscent of Mediterranean building design. Consisting of both commercial and residential components, the project is united by a lively play of complementary colors and textures of stucco. The custom hues, selected by Philip Johnson, give homage to the tradition of 1920s Florida architect Addison Mizner, while providing a contemporary vision appropriate for the 21st century.

On the commercial end of the project, there are two main office buildings which include a seven story office tower of 90,000 square feet, a two story bank building of 14,500 square feet, a parking garage for approximately 350 cars and a connecting arcade that links the garage with the office building. In addition, there is a landscaped courtyard at the ground level that separates the garage from the office buildings. The central design concept here revolves around the creation of a distinctively landscaped pedestrian space that sits at the corner of Federal and Camino. now known as ‘First Union Plaza’.

The design of the buildings is the result of a reexamination of traditional geometry – here the cube – and skillfully removing a curved section of that cube to make a dramatic and novel form.

The residential portion of the project, designed by the firm of Looney Ricks Kiss, consists of a 200-unit, mid-rise luxury building that is set adjacent to the garage. The apartment complex is designed around two interior courtyards, containing pools and fountains.

Client: Songy Partners Limited
Completion Date: 2000
Area: 150,000 square feet
Associate Architects: Retzsch Lanao Caycedo Architects


Millennia Retail Galleria, Singapore

Located in the center of the new business district in Singapore, this retail mall is designed to link several new buildings through a common circulation that passes through its central entrance space. The main entrance is the “Great Court”, composed of a 22 meter cube topped by a pyramidal roof that extends 22 meters above the court itself. From this court extends a 16 meter wide shopping arcade extending north to south, along which are 14 bays of smaller pyramidal roof structures, the ceilings of which are painted in a variety of colors.

The exterior is clad in dark red granite set as ashlars and the roof has a lead-coated copper finish reminiscent of fish scales. The interior of the main volume is also clad in red granite and is articulated with an apple-green metal column and beam structure. Natural light is provided throughout with skylights, clerestory windows and a series arched windows with gold-leaf covered, angular jams.

Client: Pontiac Marina, PTE, Ltd.
Completion Date: 1996
Area: 500,000 sq. ft.


International Place, Boston, Massachusetts

International Place is a large project even by modern standards. It has two million square feet of office and retail space with over 500,000 square feet of below grade garage and ancillary space. The site plan for the complex has a carefully imposed geometry that assures efficiency for tenant use. The mass of the buildings has been broken down into simple circles, rectangles, and squares. Arranged in an irregular manner the buildings appear as an urban village. With pink granite facades providing visual unity for the two towers, there is nonetheless a distinct form for each tower. The design follows the irregular streets that surround the perimeter of the site. The spaces at the interior of the block are used as a covered pedestrian court that provides access to the office lobbies and the retail space.

A notable design element at International Place is the decoration of the façades. The fenestration is based on “Palladian” windows, an arch flanked by two smaller rectangular forms. The Palladian window is a classic design detail, but was rare for a modern commercial project. Johnson not only used it, he multiplied it so that the form would seem, “like a wallpaper pattern”. The replication is extremely modern, although the original form is classic. International Place is considered a postmodern landmark on the Boston skyline.

Client: Chiofaro Company
Completion Date: 1987 (first phase), 1992 (second phase)
Area: 1,977,500 sq. ft.



Marquee Night Club, New York, New York.

The firm was commissioned to design certain key elements to what has become a hugely successful night club, located in Manhattan’s Chelsea neighborhood. The center-piece of the interior is the unique arched stairway leading up to the VIP lounge and creating a gateway into the bar area below. It also serves as an impromptu dance stage, and for making dramatic entrances and speeches during special events. The exterior of the club is rendered in clean cement panels with a heated marquee to keep revelers dry and warm while queuing in the hope of gaining admission. The firm also designed the glass wall of the VIP lounge.



Domus Design Collection Showroom, Ney York City, New York

To strengthen Domus Design Collection’s identity as sellers of high-end furniture, the owners of DDC commissioned a new showroom for the location near the Empire State building. The client wanted something different than traditional display windows. These are separated from the selling floor, which limits access and uses up valuable Manhattan retail space. PJ/AR’s solution was to integrate the window display into the space of the showroom. The result is an energetic, vibrant space to showcase the company’s line of furniture.

The showroom’s walls are arranged as a series of facets, each at angles to the next, with each facet subtly warping in three dimensions – the effect is expressive and dynamic. The shapes turn an ordinary plaster wall into sculpted form. A subdued silver paint accentuates the form of the walls and takes on different hues as the walls curve away from the viewer.

Two portals lead up into the light-soaked, glazed North side of the showroom. From outside, the presence of the shoppers examining furniture animates the window, creating a living frieze. Interior walls, warped at different angles, form niches for furniture groupings. Visible from the street, they help to communicate the store’s progressive identity to passersby.

Client: Domus Design Collection, Inc.
Completion Date: 2000
Area: 20,000 square feet




Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

Philip Johnson originally completed the Amon Carter Museum in 1961. Forty years later in 2001, Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects completed a transformation of the Museum that nearly tripled the exhibition space for this Fort Worth landmark. As is always the case with additions to well loved buildings, the challenge was to create something new that would also enhance the older structure. Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects accomplished this by “making no apologies” for the addition. It is unquestionably a new piece of architecture.

The patron for the project was the same as in the ’60s, Ruth Carter Stevenson, daughter of the Museum’s founder. The architects credit Mrs. Stevenson for her leadership in remaking this important Texas institution. The older building now serves as the “porch” for the much expanded Museum. With the introduction of a skylit atrium and a new entrance, entirely new circulation is now possible. Far more exhibition space makes a variety of curatorial options now available.

For the exterior, Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects moved away from the use of Texas shell stone and instead chose a rich brown granite. The contrast of these two materials is striking and elegant.


Philip Johnson at Dumbarton Oaks: Figure 1

Museum for Pre-Colombian Art, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.

The Museum is a pavilion behind a classical mansion, which was acquired in 1920, by Robert and Mildred Bliss, collectors of Pre-Columbian Art. The new pavilion is a curvilinear and transparent element within the remarkable landscape originally designed by garden expert Beatrix Farrand in the 1920s. The gemlike pavilion that Johnson created for the Blisses was the product of an extraordinary collaboration between Johnson and Mrs. Bliss, whom Johnson credits as his design partner on the project.

Beautifully surrounded by trees, the Museum consists of nine circular elements grouped in a three-by-three pattern and linked to each other at tangential points. Eight domes form the roof and recall the character of Byzantine architecture. In fact, Johnson claims he was influenced by the work of the great Turkish architect Sinan. The central circle, open to the sky, contains a small garden with a pool and fountain.

The interior and exhibits have a restrained elegance. Housed within eight of the domed spaces, the galleries display the Pre-Columbian works within custom cases. The curved floor-to-ceiling sheets of glass of the building are divided by cylindrical columns three feet in diameter and sheathed in buff veined marble. Defining the edges of the structure and the various openings in the walls and ceilings are teak floors and bronze moldings. Luxurious yet simple, the Museum for Pre-Columbian Art is a fine example of a small scale structure that reads as a monument. The sixteen-acre property and its collection were later donated to Harvard University.

Client: Harvard University
Completion Date: 1964


Sheldon Museum of Art, University Of Nebraska Lincoln Sheldon Museum of Art Sheldon Museum of Art

Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska

The Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery is composed of a compact rectangular prism, its travertine walls modulated by pilasters with reversed entasis. The building rests on a stylobate that projects at the pilasters. The galleries housed in rooms on either side of the monumental thirty foot high Great Hall, which has a coffered ceiling and stairs leading to the second floor.



Art Museum of South Texas, Corpus Christi, Texas

The elements of this design include a small building of thick, white concrete walls that are carefully crafted and reminiscent of pueblos, Spanish missions, and corresponding courtyards.

The climate of Corpus Christi suggests the Mediterranean as well as the American Southwest. Aspects were drawn from both cultures – the reflective white stucco walls of Mikonos and the heavy adobe of the Navajo. Openings are introduced with visual ingenuity. Above each window and door, there is a garden. The shallow balconies throughout the building provide color and softness to both the interior and exterior. The magic of the Museum lies in the inventive employment of light and view amidst a remarkable site.

Client: Art Museum of South Texas
Completion Date: 1972
Associate Architects: Howard Barnstone



Children’s Museum (Unbuilt), Guadalajara, Mexico

“I don’t like straight lines. I like warped lines. I like the forms that are the basis of the world. Regular forms are also what create the basis for architecture. This is why I would speak of classicism. After all, I distort the forms to make the thing more fun. Each of the four pavilions will have a different function: a painting studio, a sculpture studio, a music studio: different disciplines. And one will be devoted only to the movement of the children inside the construction, with a staircase to climb to the top, and holes to look outside.”
– Philip Johnson

A cultural project with a playful program, the Children’s Museum for Guadalajara, Mexico is a fine example of an experiment with traditional geometry. Johnson refers to the project as Playing with Plato, a reference to the liberties the design takes with traditional geometric form. Small pavilions, designed to be enjoyable for children to enter and exit, are based on cubes, cones, cylinders and pyramids. These pavilions are laid out a small island to be separated from the mainland by a springy bridge. The intent is to make for a fun and joyous escape for children.

The freedom with which the design approaches classical geometry is a great contrast with Johnson’s personal history. As a young curator at The Museum of Modern Art, Johnson once celebrated the superiority of simple geometry. Today he has rethought that hierarchy and is now more than willing to explore manipulations of traditional form.

The project is the brainchild of Mexican business powerhouse Jorge Vergara, who has commissioned multiple projects from prominent architects for this large-scale development in Guadalajara.



Museum of Television and Radio – Paley Center, New York, New York

The Museum of Television & Radio is not a museum in the traditional sense with artifacts housed in cases or hanging on walls. It houses the sounds and images that portray the history of broadcasting. Its elegant white façade is loosely based on Brunelleschi’s Pazzi chapel in Florence and fits in nicely with its neighbors on New York’s 52nd Street. The Museum of Television and Radio fits a monumental building into a context of row houses and large commercial structures. The design accomplishes this by establishing strong corners to provide a contrast with neighboring buildings and by conforming to the height and scale of the row houses to the east. A type of contextualism is at work.

Just below the lobby at the ground level, there is a two hundred-seat theater for audio-visual programs, discussions, and lectures. The second level contains a ninety-seat theater for seminars and other presentations. The heart of the museum, the library, is located on the fourth level, where a computerized catalog system describes the television and radio programs available. On the third and fifth levels, media consoles are located where individuals or groups view their selected material.

Completion Date: 1992
Area: 72,000 square feet


National Museum of Korea, Seoul, Korea

A one million square foot history museum for the Korean nation located at the south end of a proposed park system and cultural complex.

There is a vast 150-meter, wide plaza with central fountain which instigates a public procession that rises as it continues to an enclosed outdoor courtyard with archeological artifacts on display.

The main Lobby is a single room similar in dimension to the Pantheon in Rome, with a thirty-seven meter high ceiling. This room connects to the Lower Level education, service and parking. It then leads one into the General Exhibition Room. Surrounding the Exhibition Room, all galleries connect to this central space. Each gallery is a distinct, two-story, elliptical volume. The necessary outcome of this organization and shape, within such a large complex, is the advantage of a clear circulation that loops through the galleries and always returns to the central Exhibition Room for orientation.

Client: Korean Government, Division of Public Development
Project Date: 1995
Area: 108,000 square meters
Associate Architect: Anderson & Oh, Inc., Chicago Il.
Korean Associate: Wong – II Ltd. Architects & Engineers


Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou, China

The city of Guangzhou, on the Pearl River, is developing a new city center and rehabilitating its waterfront. In 1998, the city held a competition for an opera house, to become a symbol of the city. The scheme consists of a steel sculpture twice as tall as the Eiffel Tower (750m/2,460 ft.), and two concrete volumes, one holding the opera house and the other a museum. The tower is of steel construction, restrained by braces. Amoeba shaped in plan, it is formed of fifty vertical tubes. Planes of diaphragm cables tie the tubes together. Cables attached to each concrete volume balance the columns and eliminate the need to sustain large cantilever moments at the base. Like the St. Louis Arch, the opera house aims to confer an air of technical excellence and beauty on the city around it. The top is reminiscent of a spire that references the first architectural race to the heavens, the Gothic church. The trio of structures with their cables forms a gate on the river and a marker for the new city.



Bielefeld Art Gallery, Bielefeld, Germany

The small museum contains a series of galleries on three floors, with an auditorium, library, and ancillary facilities underground. There is a compromise of both natural light and artificial light throughout the building. It is a freestanding pavilion, gracefully perched on a recessed base, raised off the ground and open to the sky on its top floor. As a “pure prism”, the pavilion is square in plan with a footprint that measures eighty by eighty-feet.

A most intriguing aspect of this building is its structure which is firmly established as an arrangement of massive concrete walls in a loose pinwheel pattern. The skin is made up of glass walls that alternate with solid panels finished with South African granite, inside and out. The proportionate and functional divisions of the museum offer a practical sense to the means of displaying paintings and sculpture. On the exterior, paved and planted terraces on different levels surround the little pavilion. They serve as extensions to the galleries within and are supported with amenities such as reflecting pools and sculpture gardens on all sides.



Drexel University, LeBow College of Buisness, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

When Drexel University elected to build a truly modern facility for the Bennett S. LeBow College of Business it turned to Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects to create a 40,000 sq. ft. building that could combine state-of-the-art technical capabilities with architecture appropriate to the tradition of the Drexel campus. The Peck Alumni Center, a landmark designed by Frank Furness is located just one block west on Market Street. Its red brick serves as inspiration for the Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie design.

While the Bennett S. LeBow College of Business will respect its historic neighbor, it is unquestionably a building of the 21st century. The architects have incorporated a variety of elements that enhance the use of advanced audiovisual equipment. For example, the massing of the building limits light into those classrooms designated for electronic conferencing and other presentation techniques.

The top floor is reserved for the executive program and is intended both to foster learning and impart a truly professional atmosphere to the Business School. The plan includes two boardroom style classrooms connected by a large space well-suited for receptions, dinners and other uses. The fourth floor location provides expansive views of the campus and West Philadelphia.

The building’s exterior is accented by round aluminum column covers that are painted the official “Drexel Blue” — a color widely used on campus. The transparent curtain wall creates the principal façade of the building.

Client: Drexel University, Warren Woldore
Completion Date: 2002
Area: 40,000 square feet
Associate Architects: Burt Hill Kogar Rittelman Associates


Texas A&M School of Architecture (Unbuilt)

The design for the architecture school at Texas A&M arose from an architectural interest in intervention. The site was a series of low-rise buildings typical of the campus. Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects approached the problem by strongly interrupting the standard pattern of buildings with a striking, sharp edged, tall structure. The goal of the building was to create a sensational, sculptural form — distinct from the rest of the landscape.

The main body of the building is wedge-shaped. A trapezoidal plane of glass and steel angles off of this primary form. This shelters a student gathering area. The hope being that the building will contribute to a feeling of community among students. An element that emphasizes the contrast between this building and its neighbors is the random placement of windows on the facade.

Client: Texas A&M School Planning Board



University of Houston, Houston, Texas

The Gerald D. Hines College of Architecture at the University of Houston is situated at the head of a major pedestrian mall. The school building is a gateway to other sites on campus and therefore visited by students of many disciplines beyond archtiecture.

The source of inspiration for the building is the “House of Education” designed, but never built, by Claude-Nicolas Ledoux in the late eighteenth century. At the University of Houston the model is adapted for this non-residential school of six-hundred forty students. One element from the original that was altered in shape is a crown of columns that tops the building. This clearly identifies the building from any point on campus. The exterior is sheathed in a rose-beige brick that is compatible in color with adjacent structures. The base is faced in polished Cambrian black granite and the sloped roof is covered in copper.

When asked why he chose to follow Ledoux’s design so carefully for a new building, Johnson replied that since Ledoux did not have the opportunity to finish his great work himself, Johnson would take it upon himself to do so.

Client: University of Houston
Completion Date: 1985
Area: 153,000 square feet
Associate Architect: Morris Aubry Architects


Dorothy & Dexter Baker Center for the Arts (general view), Muhlenberg College-large

Muhlenberg College Fine Arts Center, Allentown, Pennsylvania

The Fine Arts Center at Muhlenberg College is comprised of a recital hall, gallery space, art studios, classrooms and faculty offices. The complex is a series of spaces along a 200-foot long promenade.

The path of approach to the building is an open invitation to those leaving the student union across the street. The tall, gabled entry presides over the area like a meeting house over a New England village. The upper section of the entry is glazed to its peak with a thick grid of mullions. The brick paving along the promenade continues beyond the doors and settles inside.

The interior of the entrance is flanked with white brick walls illuminated by skylight above. A series of intimate nooks are formed by the slicing of the galleria through the building at a forty-five degree angles, along side of which are carpeted benches and works of art.

What began as a humanities center became a campus focal point with the simplest of elements; sunlight, niches and a promenade. It has become a popular gathering place for students, and the openness of the galleria makes it a convenient location for receptions, formal dinners and community events.

Client: Muhlenburg College
Completion Date: 1977




Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York

Known to be one of Philip Johnson’s favorite projects from the 1960s, Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute derives from Johnson’s appreciation of Mies Van der Rohe’s single span structures. Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute is an elegant granite-clad cube supported by monumental bronze girders. The ground level is recessed, glazed and hidden in a surrounding moat. The visitor enters through a large opening within the structure’s symmetrical facade. At the heart of the building is a monumental central space that is two stories tall. This contains a symmetric staircase with thin, graceful balustrades. The galleries surround this central space at both levels.

Johnson has designed many museums and institutional structures. Often he has employed the central atrium as a major focus for such buildings, as he has done here.

Client: The Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute
Completion Date: 1960
Associate Architect: Bice & Baird Architects



Manhattan School of Music, New York, New York

This building is an important conservatory for jazz and classical music. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmen and built in 1931. Considerable research was needed for the correct selection of the various tonal elements such as carpeting, lighting and furnishings. The extensive restoration brought the auditorium back to its original glory of rich art deco colors, wood and metal work.

Client: Manhattan School of Music
Completion Date: 1994



Pennsylvania Academy of Music, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania Academy of Music is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to musical training. Students range in age from kindergarten to high school. The Academy chose Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects to design a new centerpiece for its campus in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. At its heart the project has a new performance space — a 370-seat recital hall and grand foyer — that gives the feeling of intimacy yet retains the monumental aspect that the academy required.

Nineteenth century masonry buildings line the block where the new 65,000 sq. ft. structure sits. The architects have placed a dramatic rounded full-height glass wall enclosing the Grand Foyer, flanked by masonry end pieces. The square, recessed window openings and open loggia arcade contrast with the glass wall, and relate to the scale of the existing context.

Classrooms, rehearsal spaces and a library surround the performance space and an audio lab dominates the second floor. On the upper level, studios enclose a roof garden that sits above the recital hall.


Ohio State University –  Brown Hall

This project is composed of a seven-story faculty building for the Mathematics Department with an adjoining two-story lecture hall, and an 85,000 Sq. Ft., four-story science and technology library  building. Entrances are accentuated by corbelled arches and windows, and the copings are sills are detailed with a light red brick and granite trim. The arcade of the library building has walkways of slate and brick pavers which connect to the adjoining buildings.

seaton hall fine arts center

Seaton hill Fine Arts Center


St. Francis

The 58,000 s.f. expansion of the Maurice Stokes Physical Education Building for Saint Francis College, contains new spaces on the fi rst fl oor including an Entrance Lobby, Natatorium, Gymnasium, Locker Rooms, Racquetball Courts, Administration Offices, and Ancillary Storage. The second fl oor spaces consist of a Center for Rehabilitation Education, Multi-purpose Classrooms, a Fitness Center, and a suspended Running Track. As the winning entry of a design/build competition, the project was designed and constructed at a total cost of less than $60 per square foot. The organization of the new building is designed as an “L”-shape off the existing infrastructure. It is a simple envelope around two sides of the existing building. In accordance with the particular needs of the primary and support spaces, a hybrid structural system was used. This approach utilized the most effi cient systems for the spatial needs and in turn cut costs signifi cantly. The existing circulation joins with the new lobby and corridors, creating one ring of circulation that unites both the old and the new buildings. Conceived as a collection of simple, tightly wrapped, three-dimensional,volumes, which “hug” the Stokes Building, the addition harmonizes with the simple volumetric massing and articulation of the existing structure. Moreover, the primary portion of the addition is constructed of brick which matches that of the original Stokes Building.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Client: St Francis College                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Project Cost: $ 3,350,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cost per Sq. Ft.:$57.85                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Completion Date: 1994                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Area: 57,900 square feet





University of St. Thomas – Entry Plaza and Stella, Houston, Texas

The University of St. Thomas asked Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects to improve a principle entrance to the campus in 2006. The granite clad monument the office designed provides an iconic identification of the University to passing motorists and pedestrians. The new water feature and university logo and signage are a popular backdrop now for photographs.



Bielefeld Art Gallery Gardens, Bielefeld, Germany

The small museum contains a series of galleries on three floors, with an auditorium, library, and ancillary facilities underground. There is a compromise of both natural light and artificial light throughout the building. It is a freestanding pavilion, gracefully perched on a recessed base, raised off the ground and open to the sky on its top floor. As a “pure prism”, the pavilion is square in plan with a footprint that measures eighty by eighty-feet.

A most intriguing aspect of this building is its structure which is firmly established as an arrangement of massive concrete walls in a loose pinwheel pattern. The skin is made up of glass walls that alternate with solid panels finished with South African granite, inside and out. The proportionate and functional divisions of the museum offer a practical sense to the means of displaying paintings and sculpture. On the exterior, paved and planted terraces on different levels surround the little pavilion. They serve as extensions to the galleries within and are supported with amenities such as reflecting pools and sculpture gardens on all sides.


Chain Link Pavilion, North Salem, New York

This garden pavilion derives from artistic experiment with traditional geometry. The focus is the pyramid, albeit here it is done using several pyramids and colliding them together to form interesting intersections. The semi-transparent chain link material reinforces this. Shadow and light forms fascinating patterns over and within the surface of the pavilion.

For a long time Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects has engaged in projects such as this, in addition to their well-known work in large-scale structures. Johnson in particular, has a passion for pavilion design, which might explain why he has produced so many for his own property New Canaan, CT.


Time Sculpture at Lincoln Center, New York, New York

More a sculptured monument than a clock, the Time Sculpture is more evidence of Philip Johnson/Alan Ritchie Architects interest in manipulating geometry to create a work of art. The clock has several faces of different size, designed in part to allow pedestrians, those in vehicles, and visitors in Dante Park all to have visual access to the current time. This should be something useful, especially right before curtain time at the various venues at Lincoln Center.

Working in collaboration with Michael Rock, of design studio “2 x 4”, Philip Johnson developed distinct clock face graphics. The playful quality of the placement of the numerous faces is a counterpoint to the monumentality of the sculpture’s overall form. Colored a soft bronze, the sculpture elegantly twists and warps. It seems far larger than it actually is. Also, it creates a focal point not only within Dante Park, but the larger intersection in which the park sits.

The clock was made possible through Lincoln Center and generosity of Yaffe and Gedalio Grinberg. It is a privately funded public amenity.



Thanksgiving square, Dallas, Texas

Thanksgiving Square is a peaceful landscape offering a calm place to rest in downtown Dallas. It is graced with sloping greenery, pools of water, and a cascading fountain set in a three-acre triangular site. At its heart is a chapel in the form of a spiral–a place for meditation and prayer. Within the spiral is a custom stained glass skylight that provides a soft, multi-colored light.

In 1992, the firm was asked to coordinate improvements for the Thanksgiving Square area as part of a planned new light rail, transit way system. The ensuing reconfiguration of the street allowed for the placement of train tracks. This also provided an opportunity to develop the Western point of the site. The firm also worked on street improvements, including trees, street and sidewalk paving, lighting and overall signage.

Client: Thanksgiving Square
Completion Date: 1977 and 1996
Area: 5,800 square feet (chapel)


Turing Point Park, Cleveland, Ohio

When Johnson created the Fort Worth Water Garden, he produced a landscape based on various aspects of water. At Turning Point Park the examination revolves around ways to sit. Four architectural pieces form the composition. There is a 50-seat amphitheater, a kiosk for stage lighting, a “sit-in” object and a “sit-on” object.

The amphitheater is elliptical in form and constructed of painted aluminum. The seats are made of bent-wood. The kiosk is an inverted cone, about 18 feet high. The “sit-in” piece is a chain-link structure, while the “sit-on” structure is a rounded form about two feet high.

The series of sculptural objects is an outgrowth of the firm’s dedication to exploring common ground between architecture and sculpture.


The Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York

The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller garden at The Museum of Modern Art was designed by Philip Johnson in 1953 and has been loved as an exquisite urban outdoor room ever since. In 1988, distress was noted in the wall that separated the garden from 54th Street. After some investigation, it was decided to rebuild the garden wall and perform additional repairs to the fountains, the stone paving and the steps from the museum lobby. Construction Documents were prepared for the repairs and filed with New York City Building Department and the Landmarks Department. Construction began in February of 1989 and was completed three months later, in May.

Special care was taken to match the original materials used in the garden construction. Stone from a quarry that had closed in the 1960s was obtained and cut to create the steps, pavement and coping. Brick was fabricated specifically to match the original brick used for the garden wall. The fountains utilized state of the art technology to match the original design intent and return this important New York garden to its original form.

Landscape Architects: Zion & Breen

Client: The Museum of Modern Art
Completion Date: 1953/1964/1989



Johnson Estate Gatehouse & Visitor’s Center

Philip Johnson’s extraordinary home in New Canaan, Connecticut, the Glass House, will eventually be open to the public through the National Trust for Historic Preservation. As preparation for this, Johnson designed a visitors pavilion, or gate house, that now sits at the entry to the property. His name for the sculpture-like building is Da Monsta, a reference to the structure’s animal -like qualities. Johnson has described it as having a flank, like a horse, which deserves a pat.

The building contains two rooms. The first is a reception area and waiting room. The second is a video room, where visitors will watch films and videos on Johnson and his work. These straightforward functions are enclosed in a sculpture, painted bright red and black, which Johnson claims is a reference to local New England architecture. The sculpture is a reinforced concrete shell formed using steel mesh, a layer of insulation, sprayed-on concrete, and a waterproof finish of acrylic. The system, which remains sufficiently flexible during construction, allowed for Mr. Johnson to change forms and edges of the shell before it settled into permanent shape.

The only two openings to the shell, the glassy entrance and a small window in the waiting area, are non-Euclidean in shape. Johnson claims his influence here came from German Expressionism and the artist Frank Stella. The interior has white walls and a concrete floor. The little building is nine feet tall at its lowest point and twenty-one feet tall at its highest point. Like all of the pavilions at the Glass House, this building represents Johnson’s artistic exploration of the moment.

Completion Date: 1995


Century Center, South Bend, Indiana

Located on the banks of the Saint Joseph River, this project was designed to house cultural and civic functions for the Century Center Authority of the city of South Bend.

The 250,000 square foot development is comprised of five distinct brick buildings grouped around a large central courtyard and linked by glass-roofed pedestrian streets, a promenade along the Saint Joseph River, and an island park. Incorporated within the complex are a convention center, private meeting rooms, banquet and catering facilities, art center with workshops, art gallery, and a six hundred seat theater. The firm was commissioned again in 1995 to further develop the master plan and design additions to the center that included a new art museum, new meeting rooms and a concourse entry from the Collegiate Football Hall of Fame.

Client: The City of South Bend, Indiana
First Completion Date: 1979
Second Completion Date: 1995



Harvard Burden Hall


The School of Business Administration, at Harvard University, commissioned a one thousand seat auditorium that is large enough to seat the entire student body, while also providing a suitable means for subdivision into smaller spaces for classes and lectures. The design was worked by using a flattened form of the typical pie-shape plan, which essentially then became a fan – a theater in the half round – with never more than fifteen rows of seating. The hall, which remains the largest on the Harvard Campus, can be left whole or divided in thirds with movable soundproof partitions. While a measure of intimacy is gained on the inside, there remained the problem of treating the bulk on the outside. As windows were not welcome, the design of the exterior drove the greater part of the building underground and rendered what remained above in Harvard brick. The walls are casually bent, in and out, around the various interior functions forming twenty-two sides in all.

Project Architects                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Philip Johnson, FAIA, project designer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    John Manely, project architect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Project Date: 1972                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Client                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Harvard University                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cambridge, Massachusetts



New Cleveland Playhouse, Cleveland, Ohio

Cleveland Playhouse, one of the oldest repertory theaters in the country, had outgrown its theatre complex housed in a former church building. When it became possible to buy an abandoned Sears Robuck & Co. building adjacent to the old church, the organization made its renovation part of a major expansion. The program included a new 644-seat theater, a black box multipurpose studio, and a new lobby. The 200,000 square feet former department store space was renovated as a backstage facility with a set-building shop, truck dock, storage and dressing rooms, and includes a private club and revenue producing rental space. The club is connected to the theater lobbies by a long formal promenade.

The new structures maintain the irregular massing of the original but are both grander and more eclectic, with references to Medieval castles, Regency country houses, and the neoclassical style. Each lobby is geometrically distinct and each floor has a different terrazzo pattern.

A large rotunda pulls together the entire complex and provides a central entrance and vestibule. The form is inspired by Bernini’s Santa Maria dell’Assunzione in Arricia, itself a reworking of the Pantheon in Rome. The plan of the interior is inspired by the fourth-century mausoleum of Santa Costanza in Rome.

Client: New Cleveland Playhouse
Completion Date: 1985
Area: 230,000 square feet (renovation), 80,000 square feet (new)
Associate Architects: Collins & Reimer



PAofM 09

Pennsylvania Academy of music


Niagara Falls Convention Center, Niagara Falls, New York

This project involved the firm in a major urban renewal venture for the downtown area of Niagara Falls, and includes a hotel, offices, a shopping center, winter garden, parking garages and a museum. The design needed to be one that would create a strong visual feature as an icon for urban Niagara Falls.

The axis of the project is a 1,500 foot-long tree-lined pedestrian mall. At the Niagara River end of the mall is a riverside park and the most dramatic view of the waterfall. At the other end of the mall is the convention center, a metaphorical triumphal arch, or Pantheon. Viewed from down the mall the building is a vast glass quarter-moon anchored by stone plinths at either end. The 100,000 square foot exhibition hall pays homage to the grandeur of old railroad stations and the technological sophistication of modern aircraft hangers.

Client: City of Niagara Falls
Completion Date: 1974
Area: 230,000 sq. ft.



New York State Theater, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York, New York

The New York State Theater was originally designed as a theater for dance, a home for the New York City Ballet. Today it also houses the New York City Opera. Johnson, who began the design in 1959, wanted to provide an elegant auditorium based on the 18th-century European model of small opera houses. In doing so, Johnson designed extraordinary public spaces as well as a sumptuous auditorium.

The problem of scale and organization of a theatre of over 2,000 seats was solved by presenting a simple means of entry and circulation for the public. There is a procession of monumental rooms, which may explain why The New York State Theatre is so often booked for special events. The theatre is festive and glamorous.

Presently, there is an ongoing plan of varied restorations throughout the structure. This includes design upgrades for code variances such as the replacement of the existing bronze handrails, the installation of new center rails and reworking of the particular marble junctions at the stairs. In addition, the renovation of the existing restrooms is presently under construction.

Client: Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Completion Date: 1967
Area: 295,000 sq. ft.



Sandler Center For Preforming Arts, Virginia Beach, Virginia

The Virginia Beach Performing Arts Center is a collaborative design-build effort currently under construction at 201 Market Street in Virginia Beach. The entire building is integrated into the urban town center and once complete will become a focal point and landmark in the community.

The arts center is intended to invite a diverse spectrum of performance types. Philip Johnson Alan Ritchie Architects was hired to design the multi-purpose main recital hall as well as the grand foyer. Patrons experience a resonance throughout these areas created by the use of a rich material palette of wood, stone and finely worked metal fabric. Primary emphasis in the auditorium is placed on dynamic angled overlapping vertical and horizontal wood members that advance across the side walls, giving the hall a sense of animated depth. An additional notable element in the auditorium is the wire mesh clad proscenium which can be adjusted to accommodate many different types of artistic performances.